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Abstract. The article represents the analysis of individual styles of summary writing with the aim to describe them, and verify the methods of their defining (diagnosis). The purpose of the paper is to determine the scientific status, and also to substantiate the pragmatic function of individual summary writing styles in order to improve the quality of students’ preparation for this type of written activity in the process of learning foreign languages. The main goal of the authors is to prove that the individual style of summary writing is conditioned by socio- cultural and personal factors that influence the ability to perceive and process the source text and generate a secondary text – a summary. Materials and methods. As a methodological basis, the authors rely on the learner- centered and intercultural approaches to teaching. The solution of research problems was ensured through the use of a set of interrelated methods: theoretical (analysis of literature, of available domestic and foreign experience), general scientific (classification, differentiation, comparison, generalization), as well as empirical (experimental work, content analysis of activity products – summaries, statistical data processing). The material for research is summaries which are regarded as products of written speech by Russian- speaking and English- speaking students of an economics university. Results. The research identifies and characterizes lingvocognitive styles of summary writing specific for English and Russian language speakers, that reflect nationally and personally conditioned approaches to analytical and synthetic processing of information. We prove experimentally and statistically reliably the fact that Russian- speaking students are characterized by differentiating, scanning style of summary writing, while English- speaking students – by integrating, fragmenting style of summary writing. The systematization of the results of the summaries’ content analysis has demonstrated the use by the learners of their personal experience for perception, processing of the source text and in the generation of the text of a summary. Conclusions. The obtained results help to optimize the process of preparing students for writing summaries in the conditions of intercultural communication, taking into account the individual style of summary writing.
This study examines the design and implementation of an online academic writing tutor offered to novice L2 writers. The tutor was designed to raise students’ genre awareness with regard to writing undergraduate research proposals, a largely underexplored genre. Two discipline-specific corpora of international research articles and student proposals were used to inform the design of the tutor and develop online materials. The tutor provides explicit guidance on the rhetorical organization of student proposals, extensive language support, various types of genre-based online activities, and a supplementary module on APA format references. Quantitative and qualitative data from 21 Russian EFL students and 10 in-service EAP teachers who pilot tested the tool showed that participants valued the online genre content for its usefulness and comprehensibility and rated highly the tool’s usability and pedagogical effectiveness. The tutor’s subsequent use by 38 novice EFL writers in an academic writing course suggests that students found it useful for promoting their genre awareness and related writing skills and appreciated the tool’s technological affordances as compared to print genre materials. Pedagogical considerations for designing and implementing online tools to support genre instruction are discussed.
Introduction. The article deals with the communicative strategies and tactics of linguistic manipulation used in the six Christmas messages issued by the Spanish King Felipe VI from 2014 to 2019.
Material and methods. The analysis of Felipe VI’s Christmas messages, published on the official website of the Royal House, was based on general scientific methods (description, observation, generalization, and systematization) as well as linguistic analysis methods (linguistic interpretation, content analysis, discursive analysis).
Results and discussion. This article describes some features of Felipe VI’s Christmas messages (from 2014 to 2019), taking into account the current political situation of Spain. These texts are considered a ritual genre of institutional discourse and are analyzed in the context of political rhetoric. The paper is aimed to highlight how the messages are used with an ideological purpose to strengthen the image of the monarchy and to convince people of the necessity for peaceful coexistence, respect for the law, and national pride. The article also focuses on the images of the past, the present, the addressee (Spanish society) and the country. The scientific value of this paper is in describing the most popular communicative strategies and tactics of linguistic manipulation used by the Spanish King.
Conclusion. The monarch’s Christmas messages can be considered a typical example of ceremonial eloquence in which the Head of State acts as a significant public figure, not only interpreting facts and events in order to preserve the unity of the nation and stability of the country, but also discussing moral issues based on universal values. It was revealed that Felipe VI tends to use a set of communicative strategies and tactics in order to underline the importance of peaceful coexistence in Spain and to emphasize his role as the only guarantor of stability, unity, prosperity and social justice.
The article explores pragmatic rules behind social norms in request speech acts with low imposition rate in Russian culture. The brief review of the findings in previous research on linguistic politeness that governs any social interaction shows that the scholars` attempts to evaluate politeness and work out prescriptive norms that define polite behavior, resulted in the failure to produce universal concept of linguistic politeness. That was mainly due to the underestimation of cultural differences, the role of the extra-linguistic context, the addressee`s face and addresser`s response and lack of sufficient empirical research. Numerous interpretative methods, on the one hand, widen research opportunities, whereas on the other hand, bring about inconclusive results. Such abundance of theoretical and methodological structures makes linguists choose key concept definitions, data and research methods with great care and in certain cases modify them. This paper views politeness as appropriate verbal behavior and the examples are analyzed within the framework of socio- and pragmalinguistic analysis which takes into consideration both the speaker`s communicative goals and the hearer`s verbal response. Since any interaction is restricted by numerous details of context, and individualized speech complicates uncovering general pragmatic principles behind the culture-specific practice, formulaic expressions, that speakers with equal social status use in typical everyday situations, have been chosen. Culture specific conversational formulas have been found to have certain pragmatic characteristics and being aware of them enhances cross-cultural understanding and tolerance. Since they are easily recognized their uniform perception is ensured; they are rational, direct and have an illocution of politeness thus reducing positive and negative face threats for both interactants.
The article deals with the Christmas messages of two Spanish monarchs, Juan Carlos I and Philip VI, issued from 1975 to 2018. These texts are considered to be a ritual genre of institutional discourse and are analyzed in the context of political rhetoric. Since the restoration of the monarchy in Spain in 1975, the Spanish King’s Christmas messages are thought to be the main instrument of communication of the Head of State with his citizens. Although they do not have any legal status and belong to the realm of customs and traditions, these speeches receive wide media coverage because they are one of the few occasions when the monarch addresses the Spanish people on television. This paper highlights the idea that the messages are ideologically driven and politically motivated since their major purpose is to strengthen the image of the monarchy and to convince people of the necessity and advantages of peaceful coexistence, respect for the law, and national pride. The article also focuses on the images of the past, the future, the speaker, the addressee (Spanish society), and the country. The scientific value of this paper is in providing a comparative analysis of the communicative potential of the Christmas speeches issued by Juan Carlos I and Felipe VI. It was revealed that the two monarchs appealed to the same values and feelings of their people. Juan Carlos I and Felipe VI underlined the importance of peaceful coexistence in Spain, a highly democratic country where the monarch is the symbol of its unity and permanence. As for linguistic aspects, the speeches comply with the rules of classical oratory and are characterized by a set of common features: for instance, both monarchs employ the same rhetorical devices and communicative strategies in order to impact the audience and make the message more direct and influential. Nevertheless, Felipe VI makes his messages more personal, emotional and appealing, in comparison with the messages of his predecessor. The authors described invariant and variative features of the Christmas speeches issued by two Spanish monarchs taking into account some differences which can be explained by the social, economic and political context of modern Spain.
The Spanish Kings’ Christmas messages are considered the main instrument of communication of the Head of State with his citizens. Although they do not have any legal status and belong to the realm of customs and traditions, these speeches are expected by the people, and analyzed in detail because they are one of the few occasions when the monarch addresses the Spanish people on television. This paper deals with the speeches delivered by Juan Carlos I and Felipe VI from 1975 to 2019, in order to highlight their significance in strengthening the image of the institution of the monarchy, and convincing people of the necessity for peaceful coexistence in Spain, a highly democratic country where the monarch is the symbol of its unity and permanence. Nevertheless, Felipe VI’s messages are more personal, emotional and appealing, in comparison with the messages of his predecessor as he tries to make a gentle change in the monarchy, bringing it a little closer to the people.
Due to methodological and theoretical variety in approaches as well as in contingences while investigating invitation speech acts, the findings concerning their pragmatic characteristics have turned out to be different. This paper is an attempt to determine sociocultural features, pragmatic implications and representation in the dialogue corpus of various types of invitations in Russian culture using contextual interpretation and pragmalinguistic analysis. The findings demonstrate a frequent usage of addressee-oriented declaratives, followed by imperatives, questions and addresser-oriented declaratives with the meaning of a command. All these invitations are in fact direct obligatory impositives. However, within the context of Russian culture they reveal the use of positive politeness strategies. The speech act of invitation cannot function on its own – it is semantically and pragmatically connected to pre-invitation sequence, which makes it a complex speech act. The benefactive status of the addresser is enhanced due to the obligatory nature of the invitation which also ensures the speaker`s confidence about the successful outcome of the interaction, therefore there is no need for the inviter to resort to indirectness and negative politeness strategies. There are cases of self-invitations where an invitee takes the initiative, whereas an inviter has to perform a speech act with a weakened illocutionary force.
Keywords: invitation speech act; pragmatic characteristics; pragmalinguistic analysis; positive and negative politeness strategies; impositives; Russian language culture.
Rhetorical devices are considered to be a powerful tool while manipulating and achieving goals in any sphere of everyday life, especially in politics. Since the restoration of the monarchy in Spain Christmas messages are considered to be the main instrument of communication of the Head of State with his citizens. This article analyzes Christmas messages issued by Felipe VI from 2014 to 2018. The study finds out that the King uses a wide range of lexical and syntactic rhetorical devices in order to influence public’s opinion, to strengthen the institution of monarchy and preserve the status-quo. Metaphors, repetition, personification, euphemisms, parallelism, and parceling are employed to create a perfectly elaborated image of the monarch who plays a role of liaison between the authorities and the society and is constantly working for the sake of the country.
Increasing workplace demands on foreign languages skills in professional settings call for a number of considerable changes in the university learning context regarding foreign language teaching. The present study aimed to assess the language needs within and across employed university graduates, first, third, and fourth-year students of non-language majors to further inform such changes. All four language skills, the context of both current foreign language education programs and the use of a foreign language at the workplace were considered. Questionnaires including Likert scale, multiple choice, and open-ended items were distributed among 110 students and 35 currently employed graduates. Descriptive statistics and one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey HSD and Holm-Bonferroni tests were used to analyze the data. The results indicated several areas of agreement among the participants: A clear need for all four language skills to be developed as high as C2 level and the consistent need to improve speaking. However, several noticeable discrepancies between the perceptions of the target groups regarding the context of workplace language use, such as how often, where, and with whom they expect to communicate, and need for professionally oriented foreign language were revealed. Overall, students may need to be more informed about the challenges regarding the workplace context for language use.
This research examines the degree to which stated proficiency levels for L2 Russian curricular materials align with frequency-based corpora data and reflects a comparative analysis of four contemporary L2 Russian textbooks published in the United States that target students at the Intermediate/Advanced threshold. In particular, the researchers compiled a corpus comprised of lexical items from the aforementioned textbooks and compared them with the 5,000 general vocabulary frequency lists by Sharoff, Umanskaya, and Wilson (2013) and fiction and mass media lists by Lyashevskaya and Sharoff (2009). Findings suggest that the curricular design of the textbooks reflects a conscious effort on the part of the authors to introduce and recycle vocabulary at the stated level; however, a careful review of frequency data reveals insufficient overlap at the 3,000-5,000-word band and a considerable number of vocabulary items that exceed the range associated with the target proficiency. Findings likewise underscore the value of frequency measures as an objective method for selecting vocabulary that elicits both level-appropriate and domain-specific discourse, which, in turn, assists textbook designers with making data-driven decisions regarding the content of foreign language textbooks with a communicative emphasis.
This paper focuses on the differences and similarities of relationship status lexical realization in two social networks Facebook (Fb, American) and Vkontakte (Vk, Russian). This cross-cultural work reveals the variety of lexical forms available to tag a relationship status in four languages (American English, German, French, and Russian) conditioned by cultural and social oriented values. It also discusses translation problems and mistakes caused by different cultural realities. The analyzed translation cases are divided into literal translation, borrowing, transposition, modulation, and adaptation. The authors compare the translations in the two social networks and suggest more adequate and culturally adapted options. In general, there is prevalence of literal translation (58 % on Fb; 54% on Vk) over other techniques (42% on Fb; 46% on Vk). The results of the analysis show that Fb translations are better and culturally adapted (with only one inaccuracy) than Vk translations (with seven inaccuracies). The findings can be used as recommendations for the social network translators and further linguistic research in cross-cultural issues involving language, culture and society.