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This article analyzes the perceptions of Russia, Russians, and Russian art existing in Britain, namely, those demonstrated by the country’s literary community of the first half of the 20th century. The article shows that this period saw a plethora of publications of translations of Russian fiction that were accomplished by professional translators, Slavonic scholars, and writers and appeared in periodicals and other print formats. The article provides a general overview of the British literary community’s reactions to Russia, Russians, and Russian literature. It is hard to overestimate the importance of these materials since many of the translations have never been comprehensively analyzed in conjunction with the originals, and Russia’s images in Britain were often formed on the basis of the translations. Paradoxically, the characterizations of Russia produced within the British society were more indicative of problems and domestic issues of Britain itself rather than of Russia because images of Russia provided an occasion to discuss problems of Great Britain. Contributors to the discussions, meanwhile, were asserting the superiority of Britain, less frequently – Russia, with only a handful of them advocating acceptance of the other. Usually, periods of positive perceptions of Russia have coincided with periods of improvement in political and economic relations between the nations. But all the complexities of the relations notwithstanding, mutual influence of the two national literatures is obvious.
The article is devoted to the correspondence that have gone unnoticed in historiography, between the Duchy of Guastalla and the Russian Empire which lasted from 1726 to 1759. The author publishes new sources, confirming the dynastic ties that connected the Dukes of Gonzaga with the House of Romanov-Holstein.
This article focuses on some specific features of the derivation of first names (hypocoristic) in the Russian language and in the national variant of the Spanish of Mexico. And in that context, we compare the use and analyze some typical and frequent examples in the speech of the Russians and Mexicans.
The paper looks at the way intertextual elements in films are translated. The significance of the research is explained by the fact that despite intertextuality being a popular topic, there is still no common strategy how to handle intertextual fragments when it comes to translating them into another language. This task becomes even more difficult when movie scripts are analysed due to the challenge of dubbing the original with the translation within the same length of time. First, the paper looks at the way the concept intertext is interpreted in linguistics. Second, the paper describes the research which involves scripts for the series Suits (seasons 1 and 2). The author singles out intertextual elements in scripts, analyses their translations, identifies the translation strategy and discusses possible reasons for choosing the strategy and offers recommendations how to improve the translation.
Since the 20th century with the birth of feminism, gender studies have become under analysis of many areas of knowledge. The special attention is paid to the theory of androcentricity of the English language and deficiency of female image and speech. In this article the images of men and women presented by English proverbs and anti-proverbs are analyzed. The objective of this research is to find out if the proverbs are androcentric and present male mindset and world view. The other aim is to check if anti-proverbs reflect the changing role of women in the society. To fulfill these purposes the proverbs with gender components (man/woman, wife/husband, he/she etс.) were selected and underwent a semantic analysis. In order to reveal the evolution of the images of men and women we compared the images of men and women illustrated in the proverbs with those shown in anti-proverbs with the same gender components. As a result, we came to the conclusion that both proverbs and anti-proverbs are androcentric; however, in anti-proverbs female opinion is more representative in comparison to proverbs. To sum up, it is obvious that the role of women is changing and the changes are reflected in the language.
The ability to understand and control learning refers to self-regulation and critical thinking. Critical thinking is a very important element of self-regulated learning. It has been of significant interest and one of the dominant research areas in educational contexts in various countries. But not much information has been given on critical thinking as a focus self-regulated learning. The purpose of this article is to show how critical thinking affects self-regulated learning. The authors of the article offered a 104-hour course of English to 57 (among them males 22, females 32) second-year students of National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Public Administration Studies. The course was designed to develop students’ critical thinking through the set of activities for improving listening skills. The students were divided into two groups, one of them being an experimental; the other the control one. The students of the experimental group followed the designed course. The control group students continued their studies in the traditional way. The assessment of the critical thinking development among the students of both groups was conducted with the help of the questionnaire and according to the students’ level of performance through Objectives Placement Test. The results of the questionnaire and placement test showed that in the self-regulatory context critical thinking is one of the most important cognitive mechanisms, which also demonstrates the level of students’ performance in English. The continuation of the research is provoked by the designed course outcome taking into account critical thinking instruction which is important as it is seen from the experiment in developing critical thinking skills.
The history of Spanish theater is unique and does not have any analogue in world cultural history, which could not but be reflected in the language. Theatre lexicon was formed under the influence of various socio-cultural factors, which have determined the etymology of many set expressions and phraseological units. It is worth noting that later on lexical units borrowed from this sphere have become a source of metaphors in the Spanish political discourse.
Der Sammelband vereint herausragende Beiträge der Konferenz Welt und Wissenschaft 2017 an der National Research University Higher School of Economics in Moskau.
The chapter summarizes the contributions featured in the overall collection.
The Dialect of Gammalsvenskby: A Socio-Linguistic Outline.
The current research was devoted to the comparative and contrastive analysis of Donald Trump’s victory and inaugural speeches. Its objective was to identify their similarities and differences from the functional and pragmatic points of view. The research consisted of two stages: the overview of functions on the basis of previous research accompanied by linguistic material from the speeches and the creation of word clouds which present material for analysis in the visual form, which facilitates the research. The results of the research indicated that due to their main goals the genres in question differ in the degree of expressivity and declarativity. Besides, in each case pragmatic characteristics correlated with the functions: in the victory speech the focus is on the 'greatness' of everything and everyone, whereas in the inaugural speech words connected with patriotism prevail. These pragmatic peculiarities were aimed at influencing the audience by means of producing a long-term cognitive impact on their mind, for example, the choices they make and the opinion of the new president they hold. As a result, despite Donald Trump's image of a breaker of rhetorical rules, his speeches fulfil the same functions and are rather strong. In addition, the steps for analysing genres of political discourse were described, which makes further analysis of other genres possible.
In recent years, CBE (Competence-Based Education) has been introduced at all levels of education in Russia, which has brought to the forefront the necessity to change approaches to assessment. Now that the new requirements are put forward, teachers need to modify their classroom assessment practices. However, courses on assessment have not traditionally been on the curriculum in teacher-training institutions in Russia, and teachers tend to develop their assessment skills on the job and more often than not habitually focus on assessing knowledge rather than competence-based learning outcomes, often displaying unconscious incompetence in the area of assessment. With a view to bridge this gap, a bespoke professional development course aimed at improving the assessment competence of English-language teachers in tertiary institutions in Russia has been designed and piloted.
The main hypothesis is that a major improvement in planning and assessing students’ learning outcomes in the context of competence-based education can be achieved if the teachers are provided with an opportunity to immerse in practical activities to expose them to modern assessment practices, such as assessment for learning and assessment as learning, with the aim to foster teachers’ student-centred attitudes in assessment thus providing conditions for implementing a shift in the set of educational values. The professional development course aims at creating favourable conditions for teachers to interiorize new student-centred values in assessment and providing them with an opportunity to engage in project work to practice modern approaches to and methods of assessment, which includes formulating intended learning outcomes with Bloom’s active verbs, designing tasks aimed at building specific students’ competences, developing and employing criterion-based scoring scales for assessment as well as giving and receiving feedback to and from students.
The analysis of the results displayed by the course participants amounting to above two hundred proved that project work as well as continuous pedagogical reflection ensures building conscious competence in assessment among approximately two-thirds of the course participants, thus substantiating the correctness of the approach in professional development aimed at creating conditions intended to instil new educational values, which leads to employing proper assessment tools in teaching practices. Further research will concentrate on how successful the building of conscious competence in assessment is in terms of whether the participants join the professional development course out of their own accord, thus demonstrating conscious incompetence, or they have been sent to the course by the university management.
The article is devoted to the theoretical aspects of Languages for Specific Purposes (LSP). The author proceeds from the assumption that the interaction of people with their environment can be understood as receiving and decoding certain information. Certain types of information can be stored and be transferred only with the help of specially organized systems – languages, which are specially adapted to the given type of modelling and communication. Such a type of occupational verbal communicative system is identified as language for specific purposes. The article presents a survey of the corresponding scholarly literature, which reveals the views, opinions and approaches to the problems of professional communication. The author gives evidence that LSP is not fundamentally different from LGP in terms of linguistic usage but differs rather in terms of particular modes of language that are common in different professional settings. LSP is defined as a conventionalized semiotic system based on a natural language and characterized by a cognitive function, which indicates the development of civilization and serves as an instrument of professional work and training. Particular emphasis in the article is laid on English for Medical Studies (EMS). Subjected to analysis is the vocabulary of that professional domain.
An account of the project dealing with the documentation of the dialect of Gammalsvenskby, the only surviving Scandinavian dialect in the territory of the former Soviet Union.
The article presents an analysis of the book on gender, power and political speech. There is a review of the main ideas and suggestions for the further investigation of the topic. In conclusion the author gives recommendations to the readers and overal appraisal of the book.
The history of the development of Infinitive and Gerund consists in continuous process of likening to Verb though they appeared in language as nominal units. Infinitive and Gerund convey a generalized idea of action, and the connection with the doer of action is supported only logically, but isn't expressed by formal means. Infinitive and Gerund have verbal and nominal features. Verbal features are manifested by the categories of tense and aspect, ability to accept a non-prepositional object and to be defined by adverbial modifiers. Nominal lines are manifested in their syntactic functions.
The main formal sign of Gerund is its ability to be used with prepositions. The main formal sign of Infinitive is particle to. Syntactically Infinitive gravitates to Verb, though keeps the properties of nonverbal parts of speech. The gerund, on the contrary, expands the positions of nonverbal parts of speech, but still gravitates to Verb. Nevertheless, Gerund has more properties of Noun, than Infinitive.
Since 2000, the frequency of use of Gerund has grown, and it is more frequently used in functions of adverbial modifiers, object and attribute. Infinitive tends to be more rare used in functions of adverbial modifiers and subject, yielding these positions to Gerund.
Based on the Russian variety of English, the article discusses the phenomenon of a “mock language”, i.e. a purposeful exaggeration of stereotypical language features (at different levels of the language structure and especially of phonetic accent) pertaining to Other language speakers. The authors dwell on linguistic mechanisms and functions of this phenomenon focusing on the principle of reductive oversimplification as a key mechanism of language styling, as well as on borrowings, code switching and code mixing. It is not only language features that are exaggerated in “mock Russian English” but also speech and behavior characteristics of Russians, accompanied by a specific use of anthroponyms and mixture of graphic means. The data are withdrawn from publicistic texts, television shows, online Internet programs, and advertisement videos. Emphasis is placed on the conclusion that mock Russian English can be found in the speech of both native English speakers and Russian emigrant bilinguals who use it to develop a stereotypical (often negative) image of a Russian person. Hyper-Russianization of Russian English is typically a basilectal hybridized and pidginized form of the language inappropriately associated with the entire variety of Russian English as a world English which is a far more complicated and multidimensional speech cline of a bilingual community.
This is a qualitative study covering the issue of motivation in mastering a new educational course by undergraduates. the purpose of the study is to identify techniques and approaches to foster intrinsic motivation as a driver to obtain long-term knowledge.
Cross-cultural research is crucially important in the modern globalized
world where diﬀerent cultural notions clash and interact. Tis article sheds
light on the notions “money” and “house”, which represent attitudes to
property, in the perception of Russians and the Japanese. Te research
method is an association experiment that allows to explain the grounds for
mutual understanding or possible misunderstanding in the instances of
interethnic contacts. Analysis of association felds formed on the basis of
two Russian and one Japanese sampling shows that modern Japanese tend to
perceive money as benefcial, while modern Russians tend to perceive it as
something evil and related to governance. 21st-century Japanese respondents and 21st-century Russian respondents proved to be more work-oriented than their early 1990s Russian counterparts. Regardless of cultural
diﬀerences, both Russians and the Japanese admitted their need of money as
an indispensable element of modern life. A house is understood in both cultures as a place to live in, but 1990s Russians found it less cozy and comfortable than 21st-century Russians and the Japanese.