115054, Moscow 21/4 Staraya Basmannaya ul.
Phone: +7 (495) 772-95-90 * 12481
Email: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Secretary's phone number: +7 (495) 772-95-90 ext. 23152
A Student's Guide
This chapter highlights the possibilities of a systematic account of bilingual language play as an essential feature of world Englishes by establishing some basic similarities and peculiarities in the playful use of English‐related bilingual resources in different world Englishes contexts. Next, it specifies some key terms relevant for the discussion. The major formal patterns of bilingual language play are identified, as well as various sociopsychological connotations commonly rendered through the use of these patterns. The major linguistic features of English interacting playfully with different local languages are illustrated by data analyzed in various publications and supported by examples from the author's own corpus of English‐Russian language play. Then the chapter addresses the implications of bilingual language play for the status and role of English in various communities. It concludes with an outline of the possible directions of future research into bilingual language play that may contribute to world Englishes theory.
The investigation gives the author’s view on teaching creative translation by researching the case of the cognitive political discourse analysis procedure. Of a particular interest is the fact that the research material is based on the example of the discourse analysis of modern political terminology and other non-equivalent vocabulary within the bounds of political contexts. Unlike traditional approaches connecting creativity to literary texts studies, the paper deals with the methodology of comprehending and translating foreign academic and scientific texts. The cognitive study of contextual actualization of political concepts in the English and Russian discourses through their comparative analysis is aimed at professional explanation of motivation in choosing translation equivalents. The algorithm of making up an associative thesaurus based on cognitive signs of lexical marking has been used as the major tool of political discourse analysis as well as the foundation for the original creative model of teaching translation.
The paper looks into the current terminological polices proposed by the World Health Organization and successfully implemented in the current epidemiological crisis caused by COVID-19. According to the WHO recommendations issued in 2015, the newly coined terms are supposed to be “scientifically sound” and “socially acceptable”. The paper primarily focuses on the latter requirement linking it to the dramatic changes in the sociocultural practices. Within these practices medical knowledge has ceased to be the province of the professional medical community. It is becoming increasingly available to the general public due to the culturally licensed shift towards democratization of medicine assisted by the development of communication technologies. In this newly emerging context, medical terminology acquires a distinct social dimension. Circulating in lay discourses, a term does not only name a disease, but is potentially capable of shaping a certain attitude to it, as well as to those afflicted by it. Among others, WHO explicitly prohibits the use of geographic names and people’s names, thus putting an end to the time-honored eponymic tradition. The paper considers two groups of factors that make eponymy an inadequate means of naming. The first one is of an ethical character. Eponymy is described as a stigmatizing practice which can have pronounced negative effects on nations, economies and people. Thus, as the current coronavirus epidemic clearly shows, association of a disease with a particular place can ignite xenophobia and cause societal tension. In line with its current polices, WHO made a commendable effort to ban the use of the term Wuhan virus coined by journalists and offer a geographically neutral substitute COVID-19 in record time. The use of personal names has also proved to be a highly controversial practice, as it often attributes scientific priority to the wrong person, may cause confusion, stigmatizes people who bear the same last name as the eponimized doctors, and sometimes commemorates medical professionals who discredited themselves by resorting to unethical research methods. The second group of factors is of a purely linguistic character. The paper lists such inconsistences as orthographic variation (Bekhterev / Bechterew disease), the use or the omission of the apostrophe (Down’s / Down syndrome), the use of proper nouns that coincide with common nouns (Christmas disease, Baker’s cyst), the use of composite terms (Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever), which impede professional communication and mislead lay people. Once an eponym is introduced, it is extremely difficult to eliminate its use due to the conservative nature of professional and lay discourses. The terminological initiative of the WHO spares the medical community the embarrassment of commemorating unworthy researchers and stigmatizing ethnic communities. This strategy fully corresponds to the current sociocultural practices based on tolerance and social inclusion.
This article focuses on the issue of adaptability in the field of education, particularly English as a foreign language teaching, and explores the question of whether academic debate can foster adaptability among university first‐year university students majoring in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics. To answer that, the authors designed and conducted a study in 2017 and 2018 at a university in Moscow, Russia. The study involved two groups of students: those who attended regular English classes and those who, apart from regular classes, weekly attended and actively participated in specially designed English debate classes. To evaluate whether any alterations to the students’ adaptability level occurred, teacher‐assessors completed the Adaptability Scale at the beginning and end of the project. In addition, the students were asked to fill out a self‐assessment questionnaire to rate their own adaptability development. The results of the control and experimental groups were compared and a series of t‐tests was conducted. The findings reveal that, in the experimental group, English debate classes fostered positive growth in the level of adaptability, and all its components experienced a significant enhancement.
Conference proceedings of the V. annual German conference at the National Research University Higher School of Economics in Moscow, April 17, 2019.
Abstract. The article represents the analysis of individual styles of summary writing with the aim to describe them, and verify the methods of their defining (diagnosis). The purpose of the paper is to determine the scientific status, and also to substantiate the pragmatic function of individual summary writing styles in order to improve the quality of students’ preparation for this type of written activity in the process of learning foreign languages. The main goal of the authors is to prove that the individual style of summary writing is conditioned by socio- cultural and personal factors that influence the ability to perceive and process the source text and generate a secondary text – a summary. Materials and methods. As a methodological basis, the authors rely on the learner- centered and intercultural approaches to teaching. The solution of research problems was ensured through the use of a set of interrelated methods: theoretical (analysis of literature, of available domestic and foreign experience), general scientific (classification, differentiation, comparison, generalization), as well as empirical (experimental work, content analysis of activity products – summaries, statistical data processing). The material for research is summaries which are regarded as products of written speech by Russian- speaking and English- speaking students of an economics university. Results. The research identifies and characterizes lingvocognitive styles of summary writing specific for English and Russian language speakers, that reflect nationally and personally conditioned approaches to analytical and synthetic processing of information. We prove experimentally and statistically reliably the fact that Russian- speaking students are characterized by differentiating, scanning style of summary writing, while English- speaking students – by integrating, fragmenting style of summary writing. The systematization of the results of the summaries’ content analysis has demonstrated the use by the learners of their personal experience for perception, processing of the source text and in the generation of the text of a summary. Conclusions. The obtained results help to optimize the process of preparing students for writing summaries in the conditions of intercultural communication, taking into account the individual style of summary writing.
An addressee factor, as a constituent characteristic of a scientific text, takes into account a specific recipient to implement high-quality scientific communication. The need to consider this factor is explained by the search for ways to popularize scientific knowledge dissemination by means of scientific publications. The author's understanding of the aggregate “portrait” of the reader – his/her social, intellectual, cultural, educational parameters – should be reflected in the content and structure of the scientific written product. The authors present the analysis of such key concepts as “scientific text”, “addressing of the text”, “addressee”, “sender”. The article defines the characteristics of an article as a product of scientific communication which reflects the specificity of the individual-personal perception of information by the sender. Here is an attempt to prove that the nature of scientific interaction is becoming more individualized and personalized. There is an urgent need to find means and methods of the sender identifying the potential requirements of the addressee of the scientific message.
Needs analysis (NA), which is considered central to English for Academic Purposes course development, normally precedes course design. It includes the identification of potential students' motivation, needs and lacks. However, this approach has such drawbacks as present-moment orientation and distortion of results due to learners' misconceptions and set beliefs. This paper demonstrates that needs analysis can be extended to the materials evaluation stage and account for the needs identified by language learners, course developers and language teachers, thus mitigating possible distortions. The methods implemented in the needs analysis in focus involved surveys and questionnaires administered to potential learners at different stages of course design, questionnaires for teachers, and the authors’ understanding of the learners’ characteristics and the environment they function in. It is illustrated how the triangulation of NA sources assisted in developing new and improving existing materials in the international “English for Academics” project. Needs analysis is process-oriented and multidimensional when it penetrates the course design process actively engaging all the parties such as course developers, potential learners and instructors. It allows course designers to introduce improvements on different levels and to meet the needs of all the participants.
Purpose – This articlepresents concepts and tools for developing place branding that protects places from overbranding, redundant promotion, and excessive tourism.
Methodology – The concept of a product-based place brand that reflects local ways of life and local identities was introduced was introduced. A combination of projective and typological methods was applied. Three focus groups composed of future place managers were held in three countries (N= 27) to develop place brand vocabularies − typologies of verbal characteristics of abstract places as products for internal users (residents).
Findings – In most cases, the place brand vocabularies were consistent and compatible within each abstract type and were unique (mutually exclusive) between the types. The vocabularies contained both detailed and more generalized elements. For each abstract place, short formulations of the general concept were found. Each brand vocabulary reflected the institutional, socio-psychological, cultural, historical, and geographic differences of the countries involved in the research.
Originality/value –A conceptual and methodological framework for creating place brand vocabularies is offered and it provides (1) close relationship between multiple brand attributes and their laconic expressions appropriate for communication and (2) high differentiation among brand attributes facilitates the recognition of branded places by target and non-target audiences. The framework is applicable for designing verbal attributes of place brands for specific places to avoid overbranding effects.
This study examines the design and implementation of an online academic writing tutor offered to novice L2 writers. The tutor was designed to raise students’ genre awareness with regard to writing undergraduate research proposals, a largely underexplored genre. Two discipline-specific corpora of international research articles and student proposals were used to inform the design of the tutor and develop online materials. The tutor provides explicit guidance on the rhetorical organization of student proposals, extensive language support, various types of genre-based online activities, and a supplementary module on APA format references. Quantitative and qualitative data from 21 Russian EFL students and 10 in-service EAP teachers who pilot tested the tool showed that participants valued the online genre content for its usefulness and comprehensibility and rated highly the tool’s usability and pedagogical effectiveness. The tutor’s subsequent use by 38 novice EFL writers in an academic writing course suggests that students found it useful for promoting their genre awareness and related writing skills and appreciated the tool’s technological affordances as compared to print genre materials. Pedagogical considerations for designing and implementing online tools to support genre instruction are discussed.
This paper focuses on the cognitive foundation of the semantics of English adjectives that denote mental and moral characteristics of human beings. Research into these adjectives seems a challenging task because they denote abstract qualities that cannot be perceived through vision, hearing, or touch; and here a question arises: How are abstract qualities interpreted in English encoded through adjectives? To answer it, this study follows the idea of two-level semantics, i.e. word semantics is treated as a two-level phenomenon that comprises the semantic (external) level and the conceptual (deep) one. This study is the first to address adjectival semantics from this perspective. Here a novel approach to revealing the cognitive foundation of adjectives is introduced: given that adjectives originated from old syncretic items and a word cognitive model forms at the moment of word creation, cognitive models underlying adjectives' semantics are unearthed via analysis of their etymological data. Our contribution is two-fold. First, the approach has revealed that the image schema CONTAINER guides semantics of an array of various adjectives independent of their morphemic structure or date of origin. The examples demonstrate that abstract human qualities are interpreted via the following container features: boundary, container substance, size, hardness/softness of a container shell, etc. The semantics of affixed or compound adjectives appear to stem from the integration of concepts represented by an affix and a root or two roots, respectively. Second, the findings show that the value given to every container feature appears to predetermine the evaluation conveyed by an adjective. Container features tend to possess ambivalent value, realizing the positive or negative one due to the interaction with a frame in which the CONTAINER is incorporated, therefore the same polysemantic adjective may develop both positive and negative meanings. To reveal the whole inventory of cognitive models that govern adjectival semantics in English, further research needs to be conducted.
The article discusses the status of Russian English. The authors first dwell on the definition of a variety and its relevant features. The conclusion is made that Russian English as a performance variety is a sociolinguistic phenomenon that can, to a certain degree, have transfer of some features from the native language of its users. What is most important is that the users recognize their linguacultural identity. Linguistic features of linguacultural identity are a variety’s distinctive features found at any level of the language structure. On considering these, the authors describe the functions of Russian English as a performance variety of the Russian speech community and the way English serves as an additional resource in the users’ creativity.
‘English for IT Studies in Higher Education’, is a collection of eight lessons based on a selection of TED talks about IT issues. The selected TED talks not only enhance the learners’ English language proficiency but also develop the learners’ professional competencies and expand their outlook by acquainting them with the latest applications of computers in various fields of our daily life. All the lessons have a regular structure and include exercises for developing vocabulary, listening, reading, speaking, note-taking and writing skills. A quick test has been developed for each lesson checking the student’s assimilation of the material. The book can be used both for classroom activities and for independent work. It will be of interest to an international readership, especially for ESP instructors and university teachers and students studying English as a foreign language.
This paper focuses on a passage about the so-called virtues of the mass from a verse treatise The Interpretation and Virtues of the Mass written by a 15th-century English poet John Lydgate. Lydgate’s text is analyzed in the light of other surviving English witnesses on the same subject matter composed from the end of the 14th to the beginning of the 16th centuries; on the other hand, it is compared with its Latin source. The research project examines what verb forms are used in the lists describing the virtues of the mass, what kind of logical-grammatical perspective the virtues are, therefore, placed in, and how the historical context might have played a role in the tradition of these lists. Lydgate’s rather short passage, in fact, turns out to have been grounded in the conflict of ideas and the confrontation of religious positions: numerous Middle English lists dedicated to the virtues of the mass, which started appearing almost independently of each other from the end of the 14th century, were probably a reaction to Lollard criticism, and Lydgate answered the challenge. Yet, although the authors of other texts on the virtues of the mass tended to use forms with the verb ‘shall’, Lydgate, as a scholar, followed his Latin source, which had been created before the appearance of the Lollard heresy, and transferred its grammar to his English text.
Introduction. The article deals with the communicative strategies and tactics of linguistic manipulation used in the six Christmas messages issued by the Spanish King Felipe VI from 2014 to 2019.
Material and methods. The analysis of Felipe VI’s Christmas messages, published on the official website of the Royal House, was based on general scientific methods (description, observation, generalization, and systematization) as well as linguistic analysis methods (linguistic interpretation, content analysis, discursive analysis).
Results and discussion. This article describes some features of Felipe VI’s Christmas messages (from 2014 to 2019), taking into account the current political situation of Spain. These texts are considered a ritual genre of institutional discourse and are analyzed in the context of political rhetoric. The paper is aimed to highlight how the messages are used with an ideological purpose to strengthen the image of the monarchy and to convince people of the necessity for peaceful coexistence, respect for the law, and national pride. The article also focuses on the images of the past, the present, the addressee (Spanish society) and the country. The scientific value of this paper is in describing the most popular communicative strategies and tactics of linguistic manipulation used by the Spanish King.
Conclusion. The monarch’s Christmas messages can be considered a typical example of ceremonial eloquence in which the Head of State acts as a significant public figure, not only interpreting facts and events in order to preserve the unity of the nation and stability of the country, but also discussing moral issues based on universal values. It was revealed that Felipe VI tends to use a set of communicative strategies and tactics in order to underline the importance of peaceful coexistence in Spain and to emphasize his role as the only guarantor of stability, unity, prosperity and social justice.
The African American spiritual is one of the most significant forms of American folklore which have made lasting contributions to global culture. It is considered to have laid the groundwork for the musical genres such as gospel, blues and jazz. African Americans are largely the descendants of slaves who were taken from their African homelands by force to work on plantations in the American South. Coming from hundreds of different tribes, mainly from Western Africa, they brought with them rich West African musical traditions. Away from their roots and torn out of their own cultural heritage, they sought solace in music. It helped them remain hopeful and resilient during the most difficult times. Music was a way for slaves to express their feelings: longing for freedom and home, joy, sorrow. Spirituals were created as a result of the coexistence of African and European cultures. They represented a unique combination of various elements of Puritan hymns, Anglo-Celtic ballads, African folklore and performance style. The author analyzes several songs associated with the Underground Railroad and argues that Black spirituals were regarded not only as expressions of religious faith, but also as a veiled form of resistance. The article presents some results which illustrate that some of the lyrics had a double meaning and coded messages. Spirituals were the means by which slaves could protest against slavery, transmit secret messages and encourage the fight for freedom. The article covers the main themes of spirituals and defines the key characteristics of their origin and history.